Up Helly Aa – The Modern Day Viking Festival

This coming Tuesday sees one of the most spectacular event of the British cultural calendar though it is a long from most people in the British Isles.  It is known as Up Helly Aa and takes place in the town of Lerwick in the Shetland Islands.

I’ve always wanted to go to the Shetlands, partly because it has got lots of history but mostly because it is ‘remote’.   If you haven’t heard of the Shetlands, you can see where they are on the map below.   A long way from London, a long way from Edinburgh too, in fact they are further north than the southern extremities of Greenland.  Lerwick is actually closer to around other foreign 7 countries than it is London.

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Whilst southern England has very strong Norman influences and before that from the Angles and Saxons, by the time you get above Yorkshire, things definitely take a turn towards the Nordic.  Whether in the placenames, scenery, language and to an extent, the background of the people.  Nowhere is this more the case than in Shetland.  In fact until 1472, the islands were under the domain of the King of Norway.  As such, it shouldn’t be a surprise that even after centuries of Scottish and then British culture, the island still have at their core a unique cultural identity.   Nowhere is this more the case than the festival of Up Helly Aa.


The procession of Viking warriors with fiery torches held aloft. Photo by Mike Pennington of Geograph.co.uk

As explained on the http://www.uphellyaa.org website, despite the long Scandinavian history of the place, Up-Helly-Aa is a relatively modern festival. There is some evidence that people in rural Shetland celebrated the 24th day after Christmas as “Antonsmas” or “Up Helly Night”, but there is no evidence that their cousins in Lerwick did the same. The emergence of Yuletide and New Year festivities in the town seems to post-date the Napoleonic Wars, when soldiers and sailors came home with rowdy habits and a taste for firearms.

On old Christmas eve in 1824 a visiting Methodist missionary wrote in his diary that “the whole town was in an uproar: from twelve o clock last night until late this night blowing of horns, beating of drums, tinkling of old tin kettles, firing of guns, shouting, bawling, fiddling, fifeing, drinking, fighting. This was the state of the town all the night – the street was as thronged with people as any fair I ever saw in England.”

The procession of the ship and a Viking honour guard makes its way through the streets.  Photo by Mike Pennington of Geograph.co.uk

The procession of the ship and a Viking honour guard makes its way through the streets. Photo by Mike Pennington of Geograph.co.uk

As Lerwick grew in size the celebrations became more elaborate. Sometime about 1840 the participants introduced burning tar barrels into the proceedings. “Sometimes”, as one observer wrote, “there were two tubs fastened to a great raft-like frame knocked together at the Docks, whence the combustibles were generally obtained. Two chains were fastened to the bogie asupporting the capacious tub or tar-barrel . . . eked to these were two strong ropes on which a motley mob, wearing masks for the most part, fastened. A party of about a dozen were told off to stir up the molten contents.”

The main street of Lerwick in the mid-19th century was extremely narrow, and rival groups of tarbarrelers frequently clashed in the middle. The proceeding were thus dangerous and dirty, and Lerwick’s middle classes often complained about them. The Town Council began to appoint special constables every Christmas to control the revellers, with only limited success. When the end came for tar-barrelling, in the early 1870s, it seems to have been because the young Lerwegians themselves had decided it was time for a change.


At the end of the night, the beautiful Viking ship which has been carefully built all year, goes up in flames as fiery torches are thrown onto it. Photo from geograph-org-uk by Mike Pennington

Around 1870 a group of young men in the town with intellectual interests injected a series of new ideas into the proceedings. First, they improvised the name Up-Helly-Aa, and gradually postponed the celebrations until the end of January. Secondly, they introduced a far more elaborate element of disguise – “guizing” – into the new festival.

Thirdly, they inaugurated a torchlight procession. At the same time they were toying with the idea of introducing Viking themes to their new festival. The first signs of this new development appeared in 1877, but it was not until the late 1880s that a Viking long ship – the “galley” – appeared, and as late as 1906 that a “Guizer Jarl”, the chief guizer, arrived on the scene. It was not until after the First World War that there was a squad of Vikings, the “Guizer Jarl’s Squad”, in the procession every year.

Guizer Jarl at Norwick Up Helly Aa

Guizer Jarl at Norwick Up Helly Aa Photo from geograph-org-uk_mike-pennington.jpg

Up to the Second World War, Up-Helly-Aa was overwhelmingly a festival of young working class men – women have never taken part in the procession – and during the depression years the operation was run on a shoestring. In the winter of 1931-32 there was an unsuccessful move to cancel the festival because of the dire economic situation in the town. At the same time, the Up-Helly-Aa committee became a self-confident organisation which poked fun at the pompous in the by then long established Up-Helly-Aa “bill” – sometimes driving their victims to fury.

Since 1949, when the festival resumed after the war, much has changed and much has remained the same. That year the BBC recorded a major radio programme on Up-Helly-Aa, and from that moment Up-Helly-Aa – not noted for its split-second timing before the war – became a model of efficient organisation. The numbers participating in the festival have become much greater, and the resources required correspondingly larger.



The Viking Ship goes up in flames.  Photo by Mike Pennington from geograph.co.uk


Whereas in the 19th century individuals kept open house to welcome the guizers on Up-Helly-Aa night, men and women now co-operate to open large halls throughout the town to entertain them. However, despite the changes, there are numerous threads connecting the Up-Helly-Aa of today with its predecessors 150 years ago.

You can see a brief video of Up Helly Aa below.

Up Helly Aa always takes place on the last Tuesday in January which in 2017, happens to be tomorrow.   It is in many ways the pinnacle of Shetland year and something which brings the community together as well as becoming increasingly popular with visitors from the mainland U.K. and around the world.  Book your accommodation early though as understandably, rooms usually sell out well in advance and it can take a bit of planning to get there too!

About Stephen Liddell

I am a writer and traveller with a penchant for history and getting off the beaten track. With several books to my name including several #1 sellers. I also write environmental, travel and history articles for magazines as well as freelance work. I run my private tours company with one tour stated by the leading travel website as being with the #1 authentic London Experience. Recently I've appeared on BBC Radio and Bloomberg TV and am waiting on the filming of a ghost story on British TV. I run my own private UK tours company (Ye Olde England Tours) with small, private and totally customisable guided tours run by myself!
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10 Responses to Up Helly Aa – The Modern Day Viking Festival

  1. Rosemarie says:

    Pretty cool stuff. On such a tiny island.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. I never heard of this. It sounds like a blast. Any mariner visiting the island on Helly Aa night would have to be crazy to miss out on the shenanigans there.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Mel & Suan says:

    Wow! We’ve been reading about similar activities in the US too. Lots of enthusiasts re-enact viking events.

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Boyer Writes says:

    I’m always interested in far-away places and the things that their particular culture enjoys. Looks like a lively night. Thanks for sharing. Nancy

    Liked by 1 person

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